Friday, February 7, 2020

Aviation Memory and Cognition Research Proposal

Aviation Memory and Cognition - Research Proposal Example Similarly, the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) found that on June 19, 2011 two aircrafts came â€Å"within 300 feet of each other† (à ir’, 2012). Cessna 172 and ExpressJet that was carrying 53 people failed to identify a conflict regardless of the fact that they were both connected with the radio traffic control. The Federal Aviation Authority (FAA) found that the controller who was on duty on the tower had a negative history of â€Å"professional deficiencies† with countless events where he disobeyed the standard procedures checklist that has to be followed at all times (‘Air’, 2012). This research paper aims to propose an investigative study to identify the factors that give rise to near-miss events by the ATCOs and how memory losses increases the number of near-miss incidents. The primary purpose of conducting this research is to bring to light the issue of near-miss by the ATCOs and the various factors that give rise to near-miss situations. This research proposal will provide a brief literature review on the topic, methodology, research design, expected outcome of the proposed research. Nashef (2003) highlighted that the concept of near-miss in air traffic control services refers to the loss of separation between two aircrafts in the air which if not prevent would lead to mid-air collision. Therefore, a near-miss is the situation in which the two aircrafts came very close to each other but did not collide. Nashef (2003) has categorized near-miss situations in three types, namely: Type 1, Type 2 and Type 3. Type 1 near miss is one where the incident has occurred and the installed system in the aircrafts successfully detected and corrected the situation. It worked as it was planned to work and therefore, no harm was actually done. Type 2 near miss is one where the incident occurred but one or more of the installed system in the aircraft actually failed to detect the loss of

Wednesday, January 29, 2020

Divorce - Cause and Effect Essay Example for Free

Divorce Cause and Effect Essay Before a marriage is fully â€Å"matured† 3 out of 10 fail and resort in a divorce. No child want’s to hear the word divorce mentioned by their parents, little alone the other spouse. Many now a days seek divorce as an â€Å"easy way out,† given that they have an annulment. Some may even cheat the system and get married for the spouses money, title, or objects. The marriages that are there just for show, don’t tend to last as long and become unhappy. In a marriage anything can go wrong from bad communication, cheating, and abuse. Fyodor Dostoyevsky, once a Russian novelist said, â€Å"much unhappiness come into the world because of bewilderment and things left unsaid.† The number one reason marriages end is because of the lack of communication in the relation, according to Huffington Post. There are five main instances where a lack of communication can affect the marriage. The first one, is hiding your feelings. If youre having a heated conversation with your spouse but keeping in feelings or problems then where is your relationship going to go? Oh I can help, nowhere. The next type is bodily or physical. Simply rolling your eyes, walking away from the conversation, shrugging your shoulder, or even the lack of eye contact can push someone away. A â€Å"win-lose attitude† is one of the most aggravating things for someone to do, personally. If someone always says, â€Å"it wasn’t me,† if theyre judgemental or a very negative person it can agitate you and even bring you down. Lastly a lack of politeness can make someone feel underappreciated. If you continuously do something for someone and they correspond in a uncaring manner you will tend to feel over time like you don’t matter. The simple command, like â€Å"take the dog out,† can seem abrasive. Theyre no such thing as over kindness, if someone does something nice for you, you can just simply correspond with a â€Å"thank you.† â€Å"Thank you honey,† any house wife, or husband would love to hear of their spouse. Just by keeping the â€Å"spark† between you and your spouse lite can help keep them interested in you, instead of others. Infidelity is the cause for 53% of a divorce. Only 31% of marriages last after a cheating incident, and a whopping 53% of relationships are cheated. Isn’t it ironic though how psychiatrists and marriage counselors are the top two professions for the divorce rate. you would think since they work with helping marriages, that theyd have a lower chance, I guess not in this case. Many events can lead to infidelity. After the first year in the marriage there is the same  habitual activities every day where the cheater may feel like they need something new in life, which is when someone may first turn to cheat. Having a child is a huge factor, it’ll affect the relationship no matter what you have done. The stress of having to completely care for another human being can affect you mentally, and some feel like they want to go out and have an adventure, but they turn to the wrong activity when that happens. When it comes to the 5th to 7th year, also known as â€Å"the seven year itch.† By this time most couples may have obtained the â€Å"american dream,† but they start to become bored and unhappy, so they turn to something new, to change things up. Then there’s the mid-life crisis. Generally around this time you’ve spent 20 years with the person, but youre just not quite sure that another 20 you want to be with the person. These instances are generally the reasons which fuels someone to cheat. It’s not always the case, but these are the times when infidelity is started. Just picture 5 million women, which is just a quarter of women in a marriage. That mere 25% is the percentage of women that have been in a abusive relationship. There’s six different way abuse can happen, the following are: physical, emotional, verbal, economic, mental, and sexual.Why do they do it? They seek to control their spouse. Emotional, mental, and verbal is generally how it starts, but then it can progress to sexual and economic. It can be hard for These types of abuse though don’t always pertain to the spouse, it could be happening to a child or children of the couple. To say divorce only affects the two joined in holy matrimony is an unstatement. The children, friends, family, everyone thats connected to the two can be effected. As a child that has divorced parent, since I was two, can say it still affects me. I have to figure out a time during break when I can go that doesn’t conflict too much with my sports, I barely get to see my dad, and it’s hard to see my mom work and earn all of the money, by herself for us. So if you don’t want your marriage to end try to keep good communication a priority, whatever you do don’t cheat, and be sure to check if youre being or are abusive, so you can get help to work on it. Sources Facts, Infidelity. â€Å"Infidelity Facts and Information.† Infidelity Facts. n.d. 27 March 2014. Pave, Project. â€Å"6 Types of Abuse.† Just for Teens. n.d. 27 March 2014. Post, Huffington. â€Å"Divorce Causes: 5 Communication Habits That Lead To Divorce.† November 29, 2012. HuffPost. 27 March 2014.

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

aristotle Essay examples -- essays research papers

Aristotle Politics Aristotle in his book politics, argues that the political association is the highest form of human association , and making all his conclusions based on the assumption that ‘polis’ is the best and only sensible political system. He further adds that political association is the most sovereign and aims at the highest good Politics is largely an attempt to determine or rather prove that political association is the best suited way for securing the happiness of its members or as called in ‘politics’ the citizens .The interest of the polis and its citizens were seen to be the same since both the city and man aimed for happiness as the ultimate goal. According to Aristotle, life has no existence outside the confines of the city and that it is not the city that exists to serve the needs of the individual but is a mere part and the city is more important than the individual Aristotle’s admiration of the social system in a polis shows his support to the slavery. The polis consisted of citizens which men were born to citizen parent’s women children and slaves. Men were considered to be the only rational creation and had to engage and contribute in the political association of the city, while slaves were used for work. Aristotle’s above argument had some major weakness and flaws in it, he address the salves as non-rational, and it’s in there best interest to serve there masters, who would give them a rational vision. The main drawbac...

Monday, January 13, 2020

Jung: Psychology and Religion Essay

Jung is accurate in his assessment that religion, to many, is a very personal thing. Despite the fact religious organization comprise of many millions of people, a religious experience in not exclusively a collective experience. To most people, religion remains a personal experience that is encoded and decoded in the psyche as well as the spirit. From this, derives the numerous interpretations of what should be an exclusive singular item: the bible. After all, if something is the word of God, then there should only be one religion that derives from it. The notion of taking bits and pieces from the bible, accepting what is acceptable, disregarding what are not acceptable or re-inventing variants of interpretation is absurd on a number of levels. Yet, this is commonplace when it comes to the numerous religions that exist. What occurs, essentially, is that a leader of a religion develops what he or she feels is the truth (often this notion of what is true is arrived at, at the exclusion of any other interpretation of truth) and presented to a collective whole that constitutes the remaining followers of that particular branch of religion. In speaking of religion, I must make it clear from the start what I mean by the term†¦Religion is a careful and scrupulous observation of†¦a dynamic effect†¦not caused by an act of will. (Jung 8) In other words, there is a great deal of assimilation involved with an individual’s being drawn into the world of organized and institutional religion. Since religion exists, oftentimes, as a large omnipresent shadow that envelopes people and, in short order, Jung: Psychology and Religion Pg 2 indoctrinates them. To that regard, there is no true act of will present in terms of the actual acceptance. Yes, there may appear to be an appearance of an act of will, a conscious decision, but the reality is that the true act of will designed to accept the tenants or lifestyle of a religion are in fact, manufactured by external forces. This is about as far from an actual act of will as possible, although it has the perception of being a legitimate, personal act of will. Jung outlines this in his assessment that many time people will cling to a religion as a means of escaping what is some sort of neurosis, also known as psychic forces that seek to harm or undermine the free will (thought) of an individual. Jung goes to show that people are subject to a wide variety of neurotic repressions of varying degrees of severity. While people accept these neurotic feelings as something that is part of them, they feel that the root of all neurosis come from an external source and therefore require another external source in order to alleviate the neurotic feelings that they may be experiencing. The existence of such cases does something to explain why people are afraid of becoming conscious of themselves. There really is something behind the screen. (one never knows) so people are content to consider the external factors outside their very consciousness (Jung 17) This is where the tragic irony of accepting religion as a substitute for therapy. In other words, people seem to be drawn to a source of knowledge in the form of a status quo conclusion. In order to reach the enlightenment they feel will alleviate all their Jung: Psychology and Religion Pg 3 problems in life, they become willing to accept an external force that will provide them with the security they seek. Many times, this security comes in the form of an organized religion, a commonly popular and safe method that they may be able to accept along with so many other people. This is not to say there is something inherently wrong with religion as much as it is an observation of the fact people will accept the role of organized religion as a means of providing the elements that are missing in their life as well as providing an established security from an external force. The notion of external force is highly important here. People have a tendency not to look inward for support. They are always looking for an external source and, many times, that external source is the world of organized religion. While religions have been the source of great good in the world, there is not the omnipresent solution to people’s problems. To a great degree, Jung’s criticism hedges on the fact that people have a tendency to overreach in their expectations of what religion can offer them. This is outlined extensively through Jung’s work in order to drive such a point home. This does not mean, however, that there will always be an open ended commitment to religion and faith in terms of organized religion’s ability to grasp a hold on the psyche of an individual nor does it mean the individual will forever hold on to the religious institution as a crutch. Protestantism, having pulled down so many walls carefully erected by the Church immediately began to experience the disintegrating and schismatic effect of individual revelation. As soon as the dogmatic fence was broken down and ritual lost its authority, nab had to face his inner experience without the protection and guidance of dogma and ritual. (Jung 21) Jung: Psychology and Religion Pg 4 To that regard, there will be an eventually fusion (on some people’s part) to where rational intellect may take over if religion is not able to overtake the deficiencies of institutional religion when it comes to saving people from neurosis or problems of the psyches. Of course, not everything is the proverbial â€Å"one hundred percent† and rational intellect does not automatically provide a cure for any deficiencies. To leave one form of bondage for another is not freedom. Jung contends this in his discourse on rationality. Jung addressed this problem as well and extrapolates on the limits of rationality in the following: It is a psychological rule that when an archetype has lost its metaphysical boundaries, it becomes identified with the conscious mind of the individual, which it influences and refashions in its own form. And since an archetype always possesses certain numinosity, the integration of the numen generally produces an inflation of the subject. (Jung 315) What Jung states here is significant in the manner in which he points out the fact that when what is metaphysical or supernatural loses its significance to its competition: rational reason.

Sunday, January 5, 2020

Standards Terminology Paper Nursing Intervention...

Standards Terminology Paper Elizaveta Pavlenko Frostburg State University Preface In standards terminology paper one patient’s assessment will be presented along with Nursing Diagnosis, Nursing intervention Classification and the Nursing Outcome Classification. In conclusion part of the paper, the summary of these systems will be provided. Clinical Encounter Mary Smith, Female, 56 years old, presented to Emergency Department with abnormal Chest Xray, fever, chills and generalized weakness on Friday, 10/31/2014. Per patient, she came to visit her physician after she started feeling abnormally tired at work. After consult, physician ordered Chest Xray that showed bilateral infiltrates in lungs. Given previous lung disease history, and history of COPD, physician suggested a visit to a local Emergency Room, after which Mary Smith was admitted to an outpatient unit for observation. Additional investigation of past medical history revealed that patient has Chronic Pneumonia due to Mycobacterium Avium Complex and Gastroesophageal reflux disease. Admission history revealed that Mary Smith lives with her spouse and work in a local retail store. Patient denied smoking history, alcohol consumption history, drug use history. Psychosocial assessment revealed that patient’s house was burglarized few months ago, otherwise no o ther stressful factors added. Patient presented with no known allergy history. Current medication assessment showed that patient takes probiotics,Show MoreRelatedIntroduction. This Paper Provides A Discussion Of The Electronic1523 Words   |  7 PagesIntroduction This paper provides a discussion of the Electronic Health Record for healthcare, explains why it is important for nursing to have a standard nomenclature for nursing care, and compares and contrasts two of the nursing terminologies currently recognized by the American Nursing Association. Body Organized information allows inferences to be made that answer questions greater than those answered by the information alone. (Moss, Damrongsak, Gallichio, 2005, p. 545). Medical care isRead MoreStandardized Terminology Paper : Standards Terminology1738 Words   |  7 Pages Standardized Terminology Paper Tracy Bell Frostburg State University Running head: STANDARDIZED TERMINOLOGY PAPER 1 STANDARDS TERMINOLOGY PAPER 6 STANDARDIZED TERMINOLOGY PAPER 2 Standardized Terminology Paper Nurses every day work together as a team in implementing individual care plans specific to patient care to meet needs. For this reason nurses must use a language when documenting details of patient care that is universal and easily understood by others. This type of communicationRead MoreNursing Terminology System Vs. The International Classification Of Nursing Practice1208 Words   |  5 PagesNursing Terminology System Comparison Nursing terminology could be described as the formal and informal communication that occurs in a nurses daily activity. According to McGonigle Mastrian (2009) nursing terminology allows nurses to communicate nursing data, information and knowledge specific to nursing. In addition, standardized nursing terminology refers to a system. This means they have undergone approval by a specific authority. The American Nurses Association (ANA) is one authority with aRead MoreThe Need For Classification Of Nursing Data1559 Words   |  7 PagesThe Need for Classification of Nursing Data in EHRs In the healthcare industry, nursing is underrepresented in the development of healthcare policies. Current nursing practice depends on the use of standardized nursing terminology and documentation to accurately communicate and identify nursing diagnoses, nursing care provided, and interventions that were performed within healthcare disciplines process (Mennella Caple, 2016). The essential solution to making nursing more visible is having necessaryRead MoreStandardized Nursing Language : A Nursing Vocabulary1539 Words   |  7 PagesINFORMATION SYSTEMS PAPER 2 Standardized Nursing Language: A Nursing Vocabulary Bridgette Rodriguez Chamberlain College of Nursing NR361: RN Information Systems in Healthcare July 2017 Running head: INFORMATION SYSTEMS PAPER 1 INFORMATION SYSTEMS PAPER 6 Standardized Nursing Language: A Nursing Vocabulary The National Association of School Nurses (NASN) states that standard nursing languages (SNL) are essential communicationRead MoreGlobal Usage Of Electronic Health Record ( Ehr ) Systems Essay1461 Words   |  6 Pagesdependent on standardized clinical terminology in the respective systems to ensure leveled communication among all professionals. Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine – Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT) is one of many clinical terminologies currently in use for the purpose of documenting by healthcare professionals and specialists in Electronic Medical Records. The mapping of SNOMED CT has been validated for accuracy against multiple coding and diagnostic classification systems. A brief history of SNOMEDRead MoreThe International Classicfication of Nursing Practice in Electronic Health Record Provides a Standard Language for Assessments528 Words   |  2 PagesThe International Classification of Nursing Practice (ICNP) in the Electronic Health Record (EHR) provi des a standardized language for nursing assessment documentation. The ICNP is a standardized nursing language that promotes unity among existing nursing standards and demonstrates the nurses’ contribution to health care (McGonigle Mastrian, 2012). A term is known as a word or a phrase. Nursing terminology is a group of terms used to collect, represent, or communicate data and information collectedRead MoreStatistics Lab week 63858 Words   |  16 Pagesinformation relates to many people ambiguously. Settings are preset for a specific population and set of data fields and then sealed to prohibit tampering. CertBox technology de-identifies health information in accordance to the scientific standard of de-identification allowed under HIPAA. The resulting de-identified data is then shared with bio-terrorism surveillance systems. CertBox technology (more generally termed a â€Å"privacy appliance† by DARPA) allows us to certify that resultingRead MoreNursing Theory in Practice1092 Words   |  5 PagesNursing Theory In Practice Chamberlain College of Nursing NR 501: Theoretical Basis of Advance Practice September 25, 2011 Introduction Imogene King was the developer of both a Conceptual Framework and a Goal Attainment theory. The Goal Attainment theory is a middle-range theory that originated from the Conceptual System. The primary concepts of Goal Attainment theory are perception, communication, interaction, self role, grow and development, stress, and time and spaceRead MoreThe History of Healthcare Informatics2652 Words   |  11 PagesThe History Behind Nursing Informatics Jackie Bailey Colorado Christian University Prof. L. Rieg CIS312A: Final Paper September 26, 2012 The History Behind Nursing Informatics Nursing informatics (NI) has become a vital part of healthcare delivery and has become a defining factor in the selection, execution, and assessment of technology that supports safe, exceptional quality and patient-centered care. Nursing has become so uniform. The data in patient records has become a valuable

Friday, December 27, 2019

The 2013 s Americans For The Arts Policy Roundtable Program

The 2013’s Americans for the Arts policy roundtable program let the panels from different backgrounds got together and discussed about what arts should focus on this year, and the topic they came out was â€Å"Arts and Healing: Mind, Body and Community † (â€Å"2013 Report And Recommendations†, 3). When I first saw this topic, one name jumped into my mind, James Rhodes, a rising British pianist. He was abused by his teacher back into teenage time, and this tragic experience brought him not only physical harms but also mental illness. He got involved into some drug issues and everything just seemed so messed up. However, it is music that pulls him back from the edge and let him become whom he is today. He once said in the interview â€Å"On the piano†Ã¢â‚¬ ¦show more content†¦All those news are terrible, and it is about murder, corruption, and other bad things. Living in this society, I think everyone, no matter how happy that person looks like, we hav e some sort of â€Å"sickness† and need to get healed. Thus, I think this â€Å"policy† (it is more like a proposal to me) definitely is trying to serve a large population of people and aim to improve our living qualities and conditions in a more mentally way. According to this report, this program focused on providing arts programs and trainings for military veterans and service members as well. This policy also wants to cooperate with both social medias and healthcare organizations in order to hold healing groups to help people to recover and using digital technologies to increase the accessibility to arts (â€Å"2013 Report And Recommendations†, 4). First of all, I love their ideas of working with social media companies and high-technology companies. Nowadays, we rely on those two things the most, and try to let them get into the art world is actually making arts more visible and accessible to people. In the report, they said â€Å"Although we must take care to preserve the integrity of art, we should also welcome new digital changes and use them to improve our field† (â€Å"2013 Report And Recommendations†, 20). They also gave an example of how to digitalize the arts and let them easy to access, which was letting the music therapists

Thursday, December 19, 2019

Ethics A Theory Or System Of Moral Values Essay

Ethics Ethics is a topic that is brought up regularly, especially when it comes to the business world. In business it is imperative that you have a strong ethical conviction, otherwise it can be very easy to cross lines that you can’t come back from. There are countless examples of how businesses turn out when they employ people with strong ethics, and contrary to that you can see what happens when employees of a company show poor ethics. Merriam-Webster Dictionary defines ethics as â€Å"a set of moral principles: a theory or system of moral values.† This definition is good, but in the pages that follow I plan to unwrap that a little more and elaborate on when ethics is, should be, and how it plays out in todays business culture. â€Å"Integrity as a word originates from the Latin adjective integer and means the state or quality of being complete or whole.† Integrity as a character trait is a highly sought after character trait in the business world. Sadly, how ever, it is one that can be hard to find. I have heard integrity defined as â€Å"the good you choose to do when nobody’s watching.† Integrity is at the very root of ethics, because without it our ethical convictions will do us no good. In business, integrity is everything. Without integrity a business simply won’t last, and if they do they won’t be able to do so without the entire world knowing about their shortcomings. Thanks to social media, things done in the dark rarely stay in the dark. With all it’s flaws, the media hasShow MoreRelatedNormative Ethics : A Theory Or System Of Moral Values1356 Words   |  6 PagesWebster’s Dictionary defines ethics as â€Å"a theory or system of moral values† (Agnes, p. 295). Normative ethics is an area of ethics that centers on the standards for human conduct. Utilitarianism is a perspective of normative ethics, which focuses on consequences. The utilitarianism perspective regarding moralit y emphasizes that when making ethical decisions; we should choose to do whatever will result in the greatest good, taking all of mankind into consideration. The â€Å"moral thing to do† under thisRead MoreEthics : Value Theory, Normative Ethics, And Meta Ethics1501 Words   |  7 PagesThe topic of ethics has always been up for debate. Ethics as defined by Landau is, â€Å"moral philosophy that focuses on the branch of knowledge of answering question on how we ought to live. (Landau)† In order to grasp a deeper meaning of ethics Landau focuses , â€Å"questions about what our guiding ideals should be, in what sort of life is worth living, and how we should treat one another† (Landau). The purpose of these questions allows society to focus the key points of ethics, hedonism, physiologicalRead MoreThe International Relations And Foreign Policies Decisions Essay1430 Words   |  6 PagesThe importance of Ethic in the study of the international relations and in fo reign policies decisions by governments and others non-states. The structure of individual estates and how they behave has been influenced by the constitution of the international system. In others words, due to the fact that states behave in an anarchy system, in which is not a high authority that protects them in case that they found themselves into international affairs with others states, it makes that states persuadeRead MoreThe Importance Of Ethics And How Ethics Produce Effective Leaders1240 Words   |  5 PagesThis paper analyzes the importance of personal ethics in leadership and how ethics produce effective leaders. The importance of understanding ethics, motivation to act as a role model and developing a plan of action for an organization are discussed because of their importance regarding development of good leadership. These key aspects suggest personal ethics positively affect leadership and when made a priority for leaders will produce ethical and effective leadership. With so many definitions ofRead MoreThe Importance Of Ethics , Motivation, And A Role Model And Developing An Action Plan For An Organization1205 Words   |  5 Pages The importance of understanding ethics, motivation to act as a role model and developing an action plan for an organization are discussed because of their importance regarding development of good leadership. The personal ethics positively affect leadership and when made a priority for leaders will produce ethical and effective leadership to the organization. With so many definitions of leadership, the question evolved from â€Å"what is the definition of leadership?† to â€Å"what is good leadership† (CiullaRead MoreThe Ethics Of Leadership And How Ethics Produce Effective Leadership1224 Words   |  5 PagesI will examine the importance of personal ethics in leadership and how ethics produce effective leaders in organizations today. The importance of understanding ethics, motivation to act as a role model and developing a plan of action for an organization are discussed because of their importance regarding development of good leadership. These key points suggest pers onal ethics positively affect leadership and when made a priority for leaders will produce ethical and effective leadership. With so manyRead MoreEthics Vs. Kantian Ethics1249 Words   |  5 Pagesmaking. Two prominent ethical theories that arose were utilitarianism and deontological ethics. Both ethical theories developed to establish and justify a set of different moral rules and principles. Utilitarianism, otherwise known as consequentialism, is an ethical theory that sees the best moral decision is one that maximizes utility, which implies that no moral decision is intrinsically right or wrong. Deontological ethics or Kantian ethics is a normative ethical theory that judges the morality ofRead MoreEthics And Morality Are The Same Thing812 Words   |  4 PagesWhen discussing ethics, people often think ethics and morality are the same thing. But in order to understand ethical leadership, it can be beneficial to view these two concepts differently. One of the most important ethical philosophers of modern times has been John Rawls, who made a clear distinction between comprehensive moral systems and less comprehensive systems. The distinction can help better understand the idea of ethical leadership. To Rawls, the two differ in the following manner: †¢ ComprehensiveRead MoreMoral Philosophy And Its Strength And Weaknesses1350 Words   |  6 PagesA system of moral principles is a definition of ethics in a culture or a group. Principles or rules of right conduct or the distinction between right and wrong are one definition of moral. In this essay, I will search for my principles and how I ought to live my life. What do I believe in and how do I apply this in my duty as a human being, as a father, husband and a military officer. In other words, I will search for my moral philosophy. Furthermore, I will explain my moral philosophy and itsRead More A Taxonomy of Moral Realism Essay1637 Words   |  7 PagesA Taxonomy of Moral Realism ABSTRACT: The realist dispute in ethics has wide implications for moral ontology, epistemology, and semantics. Common opinion holds that this debate goes to the heart of the phenomenology of moral values and affects the way in which we understand the nature of moral value, moral disagreement, and moral reflection. But it has not been clearly demonstrated what is involved in moral realist theory. I provide a framework which distinguishes three different versions of